Shari Forbes (UQTR)

Département de Chimie, Biochimie et Physique
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500
Trois-Rivières (Qc.), G9A 5H7

Téléphone : 1 (819) 376 5011, poste 4509
Télécopieur : 1 (819) 376 5210

shari.forbes@uqtr.ca

Publications

Taphonomy of Human Remains

Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Schotsmans, E.J.M., Marquez-Grant, N., and Forbes, S.L. (eds., 2017) Taphonomy of Human Remains: Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK. www

Schotsmans, E.M.J, Van de Voorde, W. and Forbes, S.L. (2020). TSD estimation in the advanced stages of decomposition, in J. Hayman and M. Oxenham (eds.), Estimation of the Time Since Death: Current Research and Future Trends, Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 81-108.

Voss SC, Forbes SL, Dadour IR. (2020). The Soil Environment and Forensic Entomology. In Byrd J, Tomberlin J., Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations. 3rd (chap. 12). CRC Press.

Forbes, S.L. (2018). Taphonomy in Bioarchaeology and Human Osteology, in C. Smith and J. Smith (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, NY. Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_137-2.

Forbes, S.L. and Ueland, M. (2018). Time Since Death in Bioarchaeology and Human Osteology, in C. Smith and J. Smith (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, NY. Doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_218-2

Forbes, S.L., Perrault, K.A. and Comstock, J.L. (2017). Microscopic Postmortem Changes: The Chemistry of Decomposition, in E.J.M. Schotsmans, N. Marquez-Grant and S.L. Forbes (eds.) Taphonomy of Human Remains: Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., West Sussex, UK. (pp. 26-38).

Forbes, S.L. and Nugent, K. (2016). Dating of Anthropological Skeletal Remains of Forensic Interest, in S. Blau and D. Ubelaker (eds.), Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology, Second Edition, Taylor and Francis, New York, NY. (pp. 213-225).

Blau, S. and Forbes, S.L. (2016). Anthropology: Taphonomy in the Forensic Context, in J. Payne-James and R.W. Byard (eds.) Encyclopaedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (2nd ed). Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, UK. (pp. 227-235).

Forbes, S.L. and Carter, D.O. (2015). Processes and Mechanisms of Death and Decomposition of Vertebrate Carrion, in M.E. Benbow, J. K. Tomberlin and A.M. Tarone (eds.) Carrion Ecology, Evolution and Their Applications, Taylor and Francis, Surrey, UK. (pp. 13-30).

Forbes, S.L. (2014). Taphonomy in Bioarchaeology and Human Osteology, in C. Smith and J. Smith (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Springer, New York, NY. (pp. 7219-7225).

Forbes, S.L. (2014). Time Since Death in Bioarchaeology and Human Osteology, in C. Smith and J. Smith (eds.), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Springer, New York, NY. (pp. 7308-7312).

Carter, D.O., Forbes, S.L. and Tibbett, M. (2009). Soil Microbial Ecology as Forensic Taphonomy, in C.H. Wecht (ed.), Forensic Sciences, Volume 1, Matthew Bender, San Francisco, CA. (pp. 23B.01-23B.100).

Forbes, S.L. and Dadour, I.R. (2009). The Soil Environment and Forensic Entomology, in J.H. Byrd and J.L. Castner (eds.), Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, 2nd Edition, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL. (pp. 409-428).

Stokes, K.L., Forbes, S.L., Benninger, L.A., Carter, D.O. and Tibbett, M. (2009). Decomposition Studies using Animal Models in Contrasting Environments: Evidence from Temporal Changes in Soil Chemistry and Microbial Activity, in K. Ritz, L. Dawson, and D. Miller (eds.), Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics, Springer, NY. (pp. 357-378).

Forbes, S.L. & Nugent, K. (2009). Dating of Anthropological Skeletal Remains of Forensic Interest, in S. Blau and D. Ubelaker (eds.), Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology: World Archaeological Congress Research Handbooks in Archaeology, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA. (pp. 164-173).

Maisonhaute, J.-E. & Forbes, S. L. (2020). Decomposition process and arthropod succession on pig carcasses in Quebec (Canada). Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal.  Published online: 06 Oct 2020. DOI: 10.1080/00085030.2020.1820799

Pecsi, E.L., Bronchti, G., Crispino, F. & Forbes, S.L. (2020). Perspectives on the establishment of a canadian human taphonomic facility: The experience of REST[ES]. Forensic Science International: Synergy, vol. 2, 287-292. Available online 8 Septembre 2020.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsisyn.2020.09.001

Collins, M., Gel, M., Lennard, C., Spikmans, V., Forbes, S.L., and Anderson, A. (2020). Application of a microfluidic gas-to-liquid interface for extraction of target amphetamines and precursors from air samples. Micromachines. 11: 315-327.

Byard, R.W., Simpson, E. and Forbes, S.L. (2020). Arid climate adipocere – The importance of microenvironment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65: 327-329.

Ueland, M., Brown, A., Bartos, C., Frankham, G.N., Johnson, R.N., and Forbes, S.L. (2020). Profiling volatilomes: a novel forensic method for identification of confiscated illegal wildlife items. Separations, 7: 5-17.

Iqbal, M.A., Ueland, M. and Forbes, S.L. (2020). Recent advances in the estimation of postmortem interval in forensic taphonomy. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 52: 107-123.

Leung, D., Forbes, S., & Maynard, P. (2019). Volatile organic compound analysis of accelerant detection canine distractor odours. Forensic Science International, 303, 109953. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.109953

Deo, A., Forbes, S.L., Stuart, B.H. and Ueland, M. (2019). Profiling the seasonal variability of decomposition odour from human remains in a temperature Australian environment. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. Published online 3 July 2019. DOI: 10.1080/00450618.2019.1637938.

Hall, F.,  Forbes, S., Rowbotham, S. & Blau, S. (2019). Using PMCT of Individuals of Known Age to Test the Suchey–Brooks Method of Aging in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 64: 1782-1787. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14086

Liu, T., Zhang, W., Ye, L., Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Su, S.W. (2019). A novel multi-odour identification by electronic nose using non-parametric modelling-based feature extraction and time-series classification. Sensors and Actuators: B. Chemical. 298: 126690.

Taranto, V., Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Blanes, L. (2019). The analysis of nitrate explosive vapour samples using Lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. Journal of Chromatography A. 1602: 467-473.

Buis, R.C., Rust, L., Nizio, K.D., Rai, T., Stuart, B.H., and Forbes, S.L. (2019). Investigation the sensitivity of cadaver-detection dogs to aged, diluted decomposition fluid.  Journal of Forensic Identification. 69: 367-377.

Huston, W.M., Cranfield, C., Forbes, S.L. and Leigh, A. (2019). A sponsorship action plan for increasing diversity in STEMM. Ecology and Evolution. 9: 2340-2345.

Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Stuart, B.H. (2019). Understanding clothed buried remains: the analysis of decomposition fluids and their influence on clothing in model burial environments. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 15: 3-12.

Zhang, W., Liu, T., Ye, L., Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Su, S. (2019). A novel data pre-processing method for odour detection and identification system. Sensors and Actuators: A. Physical. 287: 113-120.

Iqbal, M.A., Ueland, M. and Forbes, S.L. (2018). Recent advances in the estimation of postmortem interval in forensic taphonomy. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. Online 9 May 2018. DOI: 10.1080/00450618.2018.1459840

Knobel, Z., Ueland, M., Nizio, K.D., Patel, D. and Forbes, S.L. (2018). A comparison of human and pig decomposition rates and odour profiles in an Australian environment. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. Online 27 February 2018. DOI: 10.1080/00450618.2018.1439100

Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Stuart, B.H. (2018). Seasonal variation of fatty acid profiles from textiles associated with decomposing pig remains in a temperate Australian environment. Forensic Chemistry. 11: 120-127.

Nizio, K.D. and Forbes, S.L. (2018). Developing a method for the collection and analysis of burnt remains for the detection and identification of ignitable liquid residues using body bags, dynamic headspace sampling and TD-GC×GC-TOFMS. Separations. 5: 46-58.

Marhoff-Beard, S.J., Forbes, S.L. and Green, H. (2018). The validation of ‘universal’ PMI methods for the estimation of time since death in temperate Australian climates. Forensic Science International. 291: 158-166.

Hayes, J.E., McGreevy, P.P., Forbes, S.L., Laing, G. and Stuetz, R.M. (2018). Critical review of dog detection and the influences of physiology, training and analytical methodologies. Talanta. 185: 499-512.

Rust, L., Nizio, K.D., Wand, M.P. and Forbes, S.L. (2018). Investigating the detection limits of scent-detection dogs to residual blood odour on clothing. Forensic Chemistry. 9: 62-75.

Liu, T., Zhang, W., McLean, P., Ueland, M., Forbes, S.L. and Su, S. (2018). Electronic-nose based odor classification using genetic algorithms and fuzzy support vector machines. International Journal of Fuzzy Systems. 20: 1309-1320.

Luong, S, Forbes, S.L., Wallman, J.F. and Roberts, R.G. (2018). Monitoring the extent of vertical and lateral movement of human decomposition products through sediment using cholesterol as a biomarker. Forensic Science International. 285: 93-104.

Chilcote, B., Rust, L., Nizio, K.D. and Forbes, S.L. (2018). Profiling the scent of weathered training aids for blood-detection dogs. Science and Justice. 58: 98-108.

Forbes, S.L. (2017). Body farms. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 13: 477-479.

Ueland, M., Howes, J., Forbes, S.L. and Stuart, B.H. (2017). Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textiles on a soil surface during summer and winter seasons studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 185: 69-76.

Di Maggio, R.M., Donnelly, L.J., Al Naimi K.S., Barone, P.M., Salvador, F.A.D.S., Dawson, L., Dixon, R., Fitzpatrick, R., Gradusova, O., Nesterina, E., Peleneva, M., Ushacova, O., Gallego, C.M.M., Pirrie, D., Ruffell, A., McKinley, J., Sagripanti, G., Villalba, D., Schneck, B., Sugita, R., Wach, G., Silva, R., and Forbes, S.L. (2017). Global developments in forensic geology. Episodes. 40:120-131.

Verheggen, F., Perrault, K.A., Caparros Megido, R., Dubois, L.M., Francis, F., Haubruge, E., Forbes, S.L., Focant, J-F., and Stefanuto, P-H. (2017). The odour of death: An overview of current knowledge on characterization and applications. BioScience. 67: 600-613.

Nizio, K.D., Ueland, M., Stuart, B.H. and Forbes, S.L. (2017). The analysis of textiles associated with decomposing remains as a natural training aid for cadaver-detection dogs. Forensic Chemistry. 5: 33-45.

Iqbal, M.A., Nizio, K.D., Ueland, M. and Forbes, S.L. (2017). Forensic decomposition odour profiling: A review of experimental designs and analytical techniques. Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 91: 112-124.

O’Brien, R.C., Appleton, A.J., and Forbes, S.L. (2017). Comparison of taphonomic effects due to the necrophagic activity of geographically disparate scavenging guilds. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 50: 42-53.

Nizio, K.D., Cochran, J.W., and Forbes, S.L. (2016). Achieving a near-theoretical maximum in peak capacity gain for the forensic analysis of ignitable liquids using GC×GC-TOFMS. Separations. 3: e26-43.

Rust, L., Nizio, K.D., and Forbes, S.L. (2016). The influence of ageing and surface-type on the odour profile of blood-detection dog training aids. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 408: 6349-6360.

Ueland, M. Ewart, K. Troobnikoff, A.N., Frankham, G., Johnson, R.N., Forbes, S.L. (2016). A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns. Forensic Science International. 266: e99-102.

Nizio, K.D., Perrault, K.A., Troobnikoff, A., Ueland, M., Shoma, S., Iredell, J., Middleton, P., and Forbes, S.L. (2016). In vitro volatile organic compound profiling using GC×GC-TOFMS to differentiate bacteria associated with lung infections: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Breath Research 10: e026008.

Armstrong, P., Nizio, K.D., Perrault, K.A., and Forbes, S.L. (2016). Establishing the volatile profile of pig carcasses as analogues for human decomposition during the early postmortem period. Heliyon e00070.

Wenholz, D., Luong, S., Philp, M., Forbes, S.L., Stuart, B.H., Drummer, O.H., and Fu, S. (2016). A study to model the postmortem stability of 4-MMC, MDMA, and BZP in putrefying remains. Forensic Science International. 265: 54-60.

Perrault, K.A. and Forbes, S.L. (2016). Elemental analysis of soil and vegetation surrounding decomposing human analogues. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. E49: 138-151.

Forbes, S.L., Troobnikoff, A.N., Ueland, M., Nizio, K.D. and Perrault, K.A. (2016). Profiling the decomposition odour at the grave surface before and after probing. Forensic Science International. 259: 193-199.

Marhoff, S.J., Fahey, P., Forbes, S.L., and Green, H. (2016). Estimating post-mortem interval using accumulated degree days and a degree of decomposition index in Australia: a validation study. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48: 24-36.

Breton, H., Kirkwood, A.E., Carter, D.O. and Forbes, S.L. (2016). The impact of carrion decomposition of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of soil microbial communities in southern Canada. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 49: 1-18.

Chun, L.P., Miguel, M., Jenkins, E. M., Forbes, S.L., and Carter, D.O. (2015). An initial investigation into the ecology of culturable aerobic postmortem bacteria. Science and Justice. 55: 394-401.

Ueland, M., Nizio, K.D., Forbes, S.L., and Stuart, B.H. (2015). The interactive effect of the degradation of cotton clothing and decomposition fluid production associated with decaying remains. Forensic Science International. 255:56-63.

Buis, R.C., Rust, L., Nizio, K.D., Rai, T., Stuart, B.H., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). Investigating the sensitivity of cadaver-detection dogs to decomposition fluid. Journal of Forensic Identification. 65: 985-997.

Perrault, K.A., Stefanuto, P-H., Stuart, B.H., Rai, T., Focant, J-F., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). Detection of decomposition volatile organic compounds in soil following removal of remains from a surface deposition site. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 11: 376-387.

Perrault, K.A., Nizio, K.D., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). A comparison of one-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for decomposition odour profiling using inter-year replicate field trials. Chromatographia. 78: 1057-1070.

Stefanuto, P-H., Perrault, K.A., Stadler, S., Pesesse, R., LeBlanc, H.N., Forbes, S.L., and Focant, J-F. (2015). GC×GC-TOFMS and supervised multivariate approaches to study human cadaveric decomposition olfactive signatures. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 407:4767-4778.

Stefanuto, P-H., Perrault, K.A., Focant, J-F., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). Fast chromatographic method for explosive profiling. Chromatography. 2:213-224.

Stefanuto, P.H., Perrault, K.A., Lloyd, R.M., Stuart, B.H., Rai, T., Forbes, S.L., and Focant, J-F. (2015). Exploring new dimensions in cadaveric decomposition odour analysis. Analytical Methods. 7: 2287-2294.

Perrault, K.A., Rai, T., Stuart, B.H., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). Seasonal comparison of carrion volatiles in decomposition soil using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods. 7: 690-698.

Perrault, K.A., Stefanuto, P-H., Stuart, B.H., Rai, T., Focant, J-F., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). Reducing variation in decomposition odour profiling using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Journal of Separation Science. 38: 73-80.

Comstock, J.L., Desaulniers, J-P., LeBlanc, H.N., and Forbes, S.L. (2015). New decomposition stages to describe scenarios involving the partial and complete exclusion of insects. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 48: 1-19.

Stadler, S., Desaulniers, J-P., Forbes, S.L. (2015).  Inter-year repeatability study of volatile organic compounds from surface decomposition of human analogues. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 129: 641-650.

Forbes, S.L., Perrault, K.A., Stefanuto, P-H., Nizio, K.D., and Focant, J-F. (2014). Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate. PLoS One. 9: e113681.

Forbes, S.L., Rust, L., Trebilcock, K., Perrault, K.A., McGrath, L. (2014). Effect of age and storage conditions on the volatile organic compound profile of blood. Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology. 10: 570-582.

Stefanuto, P-H., Perrault, K., Stadler, S., Pesesse, R., Brokl, M., Forbes, S.L., Focant, J-F. (2014). Reading cadaveric decomposition chemistry with a new pair of glasses. Chem Plus Chem Communications. 79:786-789.

Perrault, K.A., Stuart B.H., and Forbes, S.L. (2014). A longitudinal study of decomposition odour in soil using sorbent tubes and solid phase microextraction. Chromatography. 1:120-140.

Buis, R.C., McLeish, S., Devine, R., O’Brien, R.C., and Forbes, S.L. (2014). Recovering fingerprints from skin: The viability of iodine silver plate transfer and α-napthaflavone under environmental and taphonomic conditions. Identification Canada. 37: 4-28.

Forbes, S.L. and Perrault, K.A. (2014). Decomposition odour profiling in the air and soil surrounding vertebrate carrion. PLoS ONE. 9: e95107.

Ruffell, A., Pringle, J.K., and Forbes, S.L. (2014). Search protocols for hidden forensic objects beneath floors and within walls. Forensic Science International. 237: 137-145.

Ueland, M., Breton, H., and Forbes, S.L. (2014). Bacterial populations associated with early stage adipocere formation in lacustrine waters. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 128: 379-387.

Pahor, K., Olson, G., and Forbes, S.L. (2013). Postmortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 127: 923-930.

Von der Lühe, B., Dawson, L.A., Mayes, R.W., Forbes, S.L., Fiedler, S. (2013). Investigation of sterols as potential biomarkers for the detection of pig (S. s. domesticus) decomposition fluid in soils. Forensic Science International. 230: 68-73.

Larizza, M., and Forbes, S.L. (2013). Detection of fatty acids in the lateral extent of the cadaver decomposition island. Environmental and Criminal Geoforensics. SP384: 209-219.

Lowe, A.C., Beresford, D.V., Carter, D.O., Gaspari, F., O’Brien, R.C., Stuart, B.H., and Forbes, S.L. (2013). The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies. Forensic Science International. 231: 331-339.

Focant, J-F., Stefanuto, P-H., Brasseur, C., Dekeirsschieter, J., Haubruge, E., Schotsmans, E., Wilson, A., Stadler, S., and Forbes, S.L. (2013). Forensic cadaveric decomposition profiling by GCxGC-TOFMS analysis of VOCs. Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University. 4: 177-186.

Lowe, A.C., Beresford, D.V., Carter, D.O., Gaspari, F., O’Brien, R.C., and Forbes, S.L. (2013). Ground penetrating radar use in three contrasting soil textures in Southern Ontario. Environmental and Criminal Geoforensics. SP384: 221-228.

Stokes, K.L., Forbes, S.L., and Tibbett, M. (2013). Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 58: 583-591.

Forbes, S.L., Hulsman, S., and Dolderman, M. (2013). Locating buried canine remains using ground penetrating radar. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal. 46: 51-58.

Stadler, S., Stefanuto, P.H., Brokl, M., Forbes, S.L., and Focant, J.F. (2013). Characterization of volatile organic compounds from human analogue decomposition using thermal desorption followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry. 85: 998-1005.

Stadler, S., Stefanuto, P.H., Byer, J.D., Brokal, M., Forbes, S.L., and Focant, J.F. (2012). Analysis of synthetic canine training aids by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 1255: 202-206.

Forbes, S.L., Wilson, M.E.A., and Stuart, B.H. (2011). Examination of adipocere formation in a cold water environment. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 125: 643-650.

Cassar, J., Stuart, B.H., Dent, B.B., Notter, S., Forbes, S.L., O’Brien, R.C., and Dadour, I.R. (2011). A study of adipocere in soil collected from a field leaching study. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 43: 3-11.

Swann, L.M., Forbes, S.L., and Lewis, S.W. (2010). A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of selected biogenic amines and amino acids in mammalian decomposition fluid. Talanta. 81: 1697-1702.

O’Brien, R.C., Larcombe, A., Meyer, J., Forbes, S.L., Dadour, I. (2010). Patterns and influences on the scavenging behaviour of the Australia Raven (Corvus coronoides) in south-western Western Australia. Sylvia. 46, 133-148.

Swann, L., Forbes, S.L., and Lewis, S.W. (2010). Analytical separations of mammalian decomposition products for forensic science: a review. Analytica Chimica Acta. 682: 9-22.

Bissonnette, M., Knaap, W., and Forbes, S.L. (2010). Steam development of latent fingerprints on thermal paper. Journal of Forensic Identification. 60: 619-638.

Swann, L., Forbes, S.L., and Lewis, S.W. (2010). Observations of the temporal variation in chemical content of decomposition fluid: A preliminary study using pigs as a model system. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 42: 199-210.

O’Brien, R.C., Forbes, S.L., Meyer, J., and Dadour, I.R. (2010). Forensically significant scavenging guilds in the southwest of Western Australia. Forensic Science International. 198:85-91.

Comstock, J., Beeton, M., and Forbes, S.L. (2010). An investigation of barefoot morphology, friction ridges and their significance in forensic identification. Identification Canada. 33:4-19.

Swann, L., Chidlow, G.E., Forbes, S.L., and Lewis, S.W. (2010). Preliminary studies into the characterization of chemical markers of decomposition for geoforensics. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 55: 308-314, 2010.

Van Belle, L.E., Carter, D.O., and Forbes, S.L. (2009). Measurement of ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen influx into gravesoil during aboveground and belowground carcass (Sus scrofa) decomposition. Forensic Science International. 193: 37-41.

Stokes, K.L., Forbes, S.L. and Tibbett, M. (2009). Freezing skeletal muscle tissue does not affect its decomposition in soil; evidence from temporal changes in tissue mass, microbial activity and soil chemistry based on excised samples. Forensic Science International. 183: 6-13.

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